T. J. Allen, Managing the Flow of Technology, 1977.

I. Altman, Territorial Behavior in Humans : An Analysis of the Concept, 1970.

A. H. Anderson, C. O-'malley, G. Doherty-sneddon, S. Langton, A. Newlands et al., The impact of VMC on collaborative problem solving: An analysis of Task Performance, communicative process, and user satisfaction Video-mediated communication: Computers, cognition, and work, pp.133-155, 1997.

M. Argyle and M. Cook, Gaze and Mutual Gaze Cambridge, 1976.

B. Becker and G. Mark, Social conventions in collaborative virtual environments, Proceedings of Collaborative Virtual Environments 1998 (CVE'98), 1998.

S. D. Benford, A. N. Bullock, N. L. Cook, P. Harvey, R. J. Ingram et al., From rooms to Cyberspace: models of interaction in large virtual computer spaces, Interacting with Computers, vol.5, issue.2, pp.217-237, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0953-5438(93)90019-P

S. Benford and L. Fahlén, A Spatial Model of Interaction in Large Virtual Environments, ECSCW '93, pp.109-124, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-011-2094-4_8

F. Biocca, A. Tang, D. Lamas, J. Gregg, P. Gai et al., How do users organize virtual tools around their body in immersive virtual and augmented reality environments?: An exploratory study of egocentric spatial mappings of virtual tools in the mobile infosphere, 2001.

S. A. Bly and G. Mark, A use of drawing surfaces in different collaborative settings Why Distance Matters: Effects on Cooperation, Persuasion and Deception, Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work Proceedings of the ACM Conference on CSCW (CSCW'02), pp.250-256, 1920.

A. Bruckman and M. Resnick, Virtual Professional Community: Results from the MediaMOO project, p.11, 1995.

P. Cherulnik, Reading Restaurant Facades: Environmental Inference in Finding the Right Place to Eat, Environment and Behavior, vol.23, issue.2, pp.150-170, 1991.
DOI : 10.1177/0013916591232002

K. Cheverst, N. Davies, K. Mitchell, A. Friday, and C. Efstratiou, Developing a context-aware electronic tourist guide, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems , CHI '00, pp.17-24, 2000.
DOI : 10.1145/332040.332047

J. A. Cheyne and M. G. Efran, The Effect of Spatial and Interpersonal Variables on the Invasion of Group Controlled Territories, Sociometry, vol.35, issue.3, pp.477-487, 1972.
DOI : 10.2307/2786507

H. H. Clark and E. F. Schaeffer, Contributing to Discourse, Cognitive Science, vol.8, issue.2, pp.259-294, 1989.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog1302_7

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

H. H. Clark and D. Wilkes-gibbs, Referring as a collaborative process, Cognition, vol.22, issue.1, pp.1-39, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-0277(86)90010-7

H. C. Clark and S. Brennan, Grounding in communication., 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/10096-006

K. Cohen, Speaker interaction: video teleconferences versus face-to-face meetings, Proceedings of teleconferencing and electronic communications, pp.189-199, 1982.

K. H. Craik and D. Appleyard, Streets of San Francisco: Brunswik's Lens Model Applied to Urban Inference and Assessment, Journal of Social Issues, vol.29, issue.3, pp.72-85, 1980.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1980.tb02036.x

L. M. Dean, F. N. Willis, and K. Hewitt, Initial interaction distance among individuals equal and unequal in military rank., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.32, issue.2, pp.294-299, 1975.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.32.2.294

A. Dieberger, Social connotations of space in the design for virtual communities and social navigation, Social Navigation of Information Space, pp.35-52, 1999.

P. Dillenbourg and D. Traum, The role of a whiteboard in a distributed cognitive system. Swiss workshop on collaborative and distributed systems, 1997.

A. Dix, J. Finlay, G. Abowd, and R. Beale, Human-Computer Interaction, 1993.

P. Dourish, Where the Footprints Lead : Tracking Down Other Roles for Social Navigation, Social Navigation of Information Space, pp.15-32, 1999.

P. Dourish and . V. Bellotti, Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces, Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work , CSCW '92, pp.107-114, 1992.
DOI : 10.1145/143457.143468

P. Dourish and M. Chalmers, Running Out of Space: Models of Information Navigation, 1994.

J. J. Edney, Human Territoriality Environmental psychology: People and their physical settings, 1976.

T. Erickson, From interface to interplace: the spatial environment as a medium for interaction, the Proceedings of Conference on Spatial Information Theory, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-57207-4_26

F. Espinoza, P. Persson, A. Sandin, H. Nyström, . E. Cacciatore et al., GeoNotes: Social and Navigational Aspects of Location-Based Information Systems, Ubicomp 2001: Ubiquitous Computing, International Conference Atlanta, pp.2-17, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-45427-6_2

G. Fitzpatrick, S. M. Kaplan, and T. Mansfield, Physical spaces, virtual places and social worlds, Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work , CSCW '96, pp.334-343, 1996.
DOI : 10.1145/240080.240322

N. V. Flor and E. L. Hutchins, Analyzing Distributed Cognition in Software Teams : A Case Study of Team programming During Perfective Software Maintenance, 1991.

M. Foucault, Des espaces autres, heterotopias, Architecture, issue.5, pp.46-49, 1984.

M. Francis, Control as a dimension of Public -Space Quality Human Behavior and Environment vol4, Environment and Culture, pp.147-172, 1989.

M. Fried, Grieving for a Lost Home The urban condition, 1963.

D. Friedman, A Positive Account of Property Rights, Social Philosophy and Policy, vol.11, issue.02, pp.1-16, 1994.
DOI : 10.1017/S0265052500004404

S. Garrod and A. Anderson, Saying what you mean in dialogue: A study in conceptual and semantic co-ordination, Cognition, vol.27, issue.2, pp.181-218, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-0277(87)90018-7

M. Gattis, Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought, 1991.

W. Gaver, Sound Support For Collaboration, Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp.293-308, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-011-3506-1_22

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

T. Gross, Virtual Communities on Stage: Supporting Chance Encounters, Communication and Awareness in a Theatre of Work, Shaping Virtual Community at the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work -CSCW 2002, 2002.

C. Gutwin and S. Greenberg, In Press) The Importance of Awareness for Team Cognition in Distributed Collaboration, Team Cognition: Process and Performance at the Inter-and Intraindividual Level

D. Grayson and L. Coventry, The effects of visual proxemic information in video mediated communication. SIGCHI, Machine Conversation. Yorick Wilks, 1998.

M. Halbwachs, La Mémoire Collective, 1950.
DOI : 10.1522/cla.ham.mem1

E. T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension, Leonardo, vol.6, issue.1, 1966.
DOI : 10.2307/1572461

R. A. Hart and G. Moore, The development of spatial cognition, Image and Environment, pp.246-288, 1971.

P. H. Hare and R. F. Bales, Seating Position and Small Group Interaction, Sociometry, vol.26, issue.4, pp.480-486, 1963.
DOI : 10.2307/2786150

S. Harrison and P. Dourish, Re-place-ing space, Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work , CSCW '96, pp.67-76, 1996.
DOI : 10.1145/240080.240193

C. Haynes, Help ! There's a MOO in This Class, 1998.

C. J. Holahan, Environmental Psychology, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.37, issue.1, 1982.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ps.37.020186.002121

M. J. Horowitz, D. Duff, and L. Stratton, Personal Space and the Body-Buffer Zone (Eds) Environmental Psychology. Man and his physical setting, pp.214-219, 1970.

P. Jeffrey and G. Mark, Constructing Social Spaces in Virtual Environments: A Study of Navigation and Interaction, 1998.

D. Joiner, Social Ritual and Architectural Space Environmental psychology: People and their physical settings, 1976.

A. Kendon, Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction, Acta Psychologica, vol.26, pp.22-63, 1967.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6918(67)90005-4

A. Kendon and A. Ferber, A Description of some human greetings, Comparative ecology and behavior of primates, pp.591-668, 1973.

S. Kiesler and J. N. Cummings, What Do We Know about Proximity and Distance in Work Groups ? A Legacy of Research, Distributed Work, 2002.

R. M. Krauss and S. Weinheimer, Concurrent feedback, confirmation, and the encoding of referents in verbal communication., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.4, issue.3, pp.343-346, 1966.
DOI : 10.1037/h0023705

R. E. Kraut, S. R. Fussell, S. E. Brennan, and J. Siegel, Understanding effects of proximity on collaboration: Implications for technologies to support remote collaborative work, pp.137-162, 2002.

D. H. Krikorian, J. S. Lee, M. Chock, T. Harms, and C. , Isn't That Spatial?: Distance and Communication in a 2-D Virtual Environment, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol.40, issue.4, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2000.tb00349.x

D. Kirsh and P. Maglio, On Distinguishing Epistemic from Pragmatic Action, Cognitive Science, vol.114, issue.4, pp.513-549, 1994.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog1804_1

D. Kirsh, The intelligent use of space, Artificial Intelligence, vol.73, issue.1-2, pp.31-68, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-3702(94)00017-U

E. S. Knowles, Boundaries around group interaction: The effect of group size and member status on boundary permeability., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.327-331, 1973.
DOI : 10.1037/h0034464

B. Latané, The psychology of social impact., American Psychologist, vol.36, issue.4, pp.343-356, 1981.
DOI : 10.1037/0003-066X.36.4.343

B. Latané, J. H. Liu, A. Nowak, M. Bonevento, and L. Zheng, Distance Matters: Physical Space and Social Impact, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.21, issue.8, pp.795-805, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/0146167295218002

H. Lefebvre, La production de l'espace. Anthropos : Paris, 1974.

W. J. Levelt, Speaking: From intention to articulation, 1989.

D. Ley, C. , and R. , Urban Graffiti as Territorial Markers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, pp.491-505, 1974.

M. Lombard and T. Ditton, At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol.32, issue.1, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00072.x

. Low and I. Altman, Place Attachment, Human Behavior and Environment, vol.12, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-8753-4_1

L. Marine, Study of the Opportunistic Use of Environmental Structure to Organize Behavior, 1990.

A. Mehrabian and S. G. Diamond, Seating Arrangement and Conversation, Sociometry, vol.34, issue.2, pp.281-289, 1971.
DOI : 10.2307/2786417

J. Meyrowitz, No Sense of Place : The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior, 1985.

G. A. Miller and P. N. Johnson-laird, Language and perception, 1976.

H. Minami and . K. Tanaka, Social and Environmental Psychology: Transaction between Physical Space and Group-Dynamic Processes, Environment and Behavior, vol.27, issue.1, pp.43-55, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/001391659502700104

A. J. Munro, K. Höök, and D. Benyon, Footprints in the Snow, Social Navigation of Information Space, pp.1-14
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4471-0837-5_1

Y. Moon, The effects of distance in local versus remote human-computer interaction, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI '98, pp.103-108, 1998.
DOI : 10.1145/274644.274660

Y. Moon, The effects of physical distance and response latency on persuasion in computer-mediated communication and human???computer communication., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol.5, issue.4, pp.379-392, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/1076-898X.5.4.379

A. Newlands, A. Anderson, A. Thomson, and N. Dickson, Using Speech Related Gestures to Aid Referential Communication in Face-to-face and Computer- Supported Collaborative Work, Proceedings of the First congress of the International Society for Gesture Studies tool place at the University of Texas at Austin, 2002.

N. Nova, T. Wehrle, J. Goslin, Y. Bourquin, and P. Dillenbourg, The Impacts of Awareness Tools on Mutual Modelling in a Collaborative Video-Game, Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Groupware, pp.99-108, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-39850-9_9

K. Okada, F. Maeda, Y. Ichikawa, and Y. Matsushita, Multiparty videoconferencing at virtual social distance, Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work , CSCW '94, pp.385-393, 1994.
DOI : 10.1145/192844.193054

D. Ott and P. Dillenbourg, Using Proximity and View Awareness to Reduce Referential Ambiguity in a Shared 3D Virtual Environment, Proceedings of CSCL 2001, 2001.

J. Piaget and B. Inhelder, The child's conception of space, 1956.

H. M. Prohansky, W. H. Ittelson, and L. G. Rivlin, Freedom of choice in a physical setting Environmental psychology: People and their physical settings, pp.177-181, 1970.

O. W. Rahlff, R. K. Rolfsen, and J. Herstad, The Role of Wearables in Social Navigation, Social Navigation of Information Space, pp.217-236, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4471-0837-5_12

H. Rheingold, Smart mobs, Soci??t??s, vol.79, issue.1, 2002.
DOI : 10.3917/soc.079.0075

E. Rocco, Trust breaks down in electronic contexts but can be repaired by some initial face-to-face contact, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI '98, pp.496-50, 1998.
DOI : 10.1145/274644.274711

T. Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict, 1960.

M. F. Schober, Spatial perspective-taking in conversation, Cognition, vol.47, issue.1, pp.1-24, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-0277(93)90060-9

M. Smith, S. Farnham, D. S. Acm, and . Chi, The Social Life of Small Graphical Chats, 2000.

M. Sohlenkamp, Supporting group awareness in multi-user environments through perceptualization. (GMD Research Series, 1999.

M. E. Sorrows and S. C. Hirtle, The Nature of Landmarks for Real and Electronic Spaces, Spatial Information Theory, International Conference COSIT 1999, Proceedings, pp.37-50, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-48384-5_3

B. Steinzor, The spatial factor in face to face discussion groups., The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol.45, issue.3, pp.552-555, 1950.
DOI : 10.1037/h0061767

L. Takayama, L. Leung, X. Jiang, and J. Hong, You're Getting Warmer! How Proximity Information Affects Search Behavior in Physical Spaces, Extended Abstracts of the Hu man Factors in Computing Systems: CHI2003, 2003.

B. Tversky and P. Lee, How Space Structures Language, Spatial Cognition. Number 1404 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.157-176, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-69342-4_8

S. Whittaker, S. Brennan, and C. , Co-ordinating activity, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Reaching through technology, CHI '91, pp.360-367, 1991.
DOI : 10.1145/108844.108944

F. Yates, The Art of Memory, 1969.

S. Zhao, Toward a taxonomy of copresence, Proceedings of Presence Available on-line at, 2001.